This post in addition has been translated into Mandarin. Vitamin conceived Ethereum as the world computer: an individual, composable, open up, permissionless condition machine that could run trust-minimized code. Even though Ethereum was a breakthrough on many fronts-P2P coating, deterministic state machines, composable smart move-it, and contracts were without many others. These limitations-most notably, having less throughput, high latency, expensive transactions, and the utilization of the custom programming language in a lackluster virtual machine-have prevented Ethereum from fulfilling its original promise. 20M investment in Solana. Here’s Solana’s news release.
1 – 5 is clear. 6: having an individual, global declare that supports composable smart agreements. 6 can’t be overstated. Developers building smart agreements don’t want to cope with coating 2 and sharing. Or cross-shard software state and logic. Or cross-shard latency. Or security models in aspect chains. Or liquidity routing in state-channel networks. Or how they may run computations off-chain using zero-knowledge proofs. The entire point of experiencing a good contract chain would be that the chain itself abstracts all of the lower-level complexities and economic system necessary to deliver trust-minimized computation, allowing application developers to focus on application-logic.
Indeed, when Vitalik unveiled Ethereum to the world in Miami in January 2014, this is just what he emphasized: the point of the world computer is to abstract everything that’s not application-specific! While there are various kinds of scaling solutions being done, all of them create idiosyncratic forms of complexity for program developers, users, and the ecosystem all together. The last of the forms of difficulty – what I call “creating ecosystem baggage” – is specially challenging to deal with.
Or said yet another way: many of these heterogeneous scaling solutions break the style and simplicity of a single logically centralized system (but architecturally and politically decentralized) that is unique, not uniform, and logically fragmented. Logical fragmentation increases complexity and friction for users, developers, and providers. All the heterogeneous scaling solutions are responses to the fact that, until now, no-one has figured out how to range level 1 while also conserving sufficient architectural and political decentralization.
When I tell people that Solana has determined how to scale the layer 1, they presume that the architecture must be experimental and dangerous. Ironically, this is the opposite of reality. Meanwhile, programmers – both crypto and non-crypto developers – no developing and deploy code for layer 1: deploy a good contract on the chain, and users send authorized communications to the string then.
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It’s impossible to provide simple abstractions with out a logically centralized interface. This is not to state that the coatings 2 is bad, or that designers won’t build successful layer 2 products. Rather, the case for Solana is one that designers don’t have to depend on these scaling solutions (programmers will surely deploy coating 2 things together with Solana, and they’ll have the ability to because Solana is permissionless). For the vast majority of use cases, designers building on Solana just don’t have to think about scaling at all because the entire point of Solana’s layer 1 is to abstract intricacy. Solana’s guiding basic principle is that the software shall not block the way of hardware.
Let me replicate that. Solana’s guiding concept is that software shall not get in the way of hardware. First, the Solana network as a whole operates at the same quickness as a single validator. Second, aggregate network performance scales alongside bandwidth and the amount of GPU cores. Bandwidth continues to double every 18 – 24 months, and modern internet connections are numerous orders of magnitude away from saturating the physical limits of fiber. And third, because of the fact that Solana’s aggregate network performance grows linearly with the underlying hardware, Solana creates abundance where there is currently scarcity: trust-minimized computation. The overarching theme of technology during the last few centuries has been making previously scarce resources abundant.
The notion of great quantity is most obviously captured by Moore’s Law, but abundance is not merely about sheer computational ability. The impacts of abundance have been felt in almost every industry as software continues to consume the world. While abundance is generally a good thing, there is one area where abundance is obviously a negative thing: the amount of money supply.
While every permissionless chain includes scarcity warranties about the money supply because of permissionless BFT consensus, each string also makes scarcity of trust-minimized computation. By making a network in which software will not get in the way of hardware-allowing network performance to scale with hardware-Solana makes trust-minimized computation an abundant rather than scarce resource, while offering strong warranties about the amount of money source still. Scarcity of money source and scarcity of trust-minimized computation have been bundled previously. The global world computer must offer abundant computation but is powered by scarce money.
There are seven major technical breakthroughs making Solana possible. I’ll provide a brief overview of each just. The section headers link to detailed explanations from the Solana team. Proof of History (POH). POH is a subtle but foundational development on top of which the rest of Solana’s unique structures is built. POH symbolizes an entirely new approach to encoding and communicating the duration of time between nodes in permissionless settings to solve the clock problem. POH functions as a time clock before consensus, enabling all sorts of unique timing assumptions to happen up the stack from timing assumptions in consensus to proofs of replication to hyper-optimized data propagation to mempool management and more.